Aprendiendo a contar

Cuando los niños son pequeños se inician de manera espontánea el conteo.  Es una actividad que realizan de manera totalmente natural. Desde que vienen al mundo los niños pueden observar cantidades numéricas por doquier  (el de la casa, las matrículas de los coches, los precios en la tienda, etc.) y también escuchan conversaciones donde aparecen palabras numéricas: “dame dos manzanas”, “faltan cuatro cubiertos”, “tiene 7 años”, etc., por tanto es normal que los niños nos imiten y repitan estos números ya que son parte de nuestra vida cotidiana.

Niño estudiando matemáticas

Sin embargo, aunque puedan repetir palabras numéricas o realizar pequeños conteos eso no nos indica que estén preparados para adentrarse en las grafías numéricas o en los cálculos escritos, no es por aquí por donde deberíamos empezar.

Esta, es una noción abstracta a la que no se llega por el número escrito sino que el niño llegará a ella mediante su experiencia, tanto en su vida cotidiana como manipulando materiales preparados.

¿Qué se necesita para que los niños aprendan a contar?

En casa podemos aprovechar estas experiencias y observar como el niño va adquiriendo esta noción de cantidad.

Es fundamental todo el trabajo con la lógica o razonamiento lógico, es decir toda una serie de actividades donde se implica el pensamiento lógico y que prepararán el terreno.

¡Una opción sería hacer lo siguiente!

Podemos presentar situaciones con materiales reales o con materiales preparados por nosotros para comparar grupos con cantidades diferentes de objetos.  Se pueden ordenar de mayor a menor o también relacionando grupos que tienen la misma cantidad de objetos.

Los niños necesitan aprender el valor numérico de un conjunto. Eso significa que deben entender que el último elemento contado representa la cantidad de elementos del conjunto.


Desarrollando el pensamiento lógico

En las actividades cotidianas también se les puede enseñar a contar y el significado del valor numérico. Los niños pueden contar sus juguetes mientras los recogen o cuántos pasos hay desde la cocina hasta su habitación. Los padres pueden señalar los números en un reloj o en un teléfono.

Se espera que los niños de preescolar resuelvan problemas simples de suma y resta utilizando objetos. En casa es posible colocar a los niños a practicar un poco. Por ejemplo, pueden pedirles que calculen la cantidad correcta de platos o utensilios cuando ayuden a poner la mesa para la cena. Recuerde que el lenguaje matemático que los niños escuchan es fundamental. Los padres pueden preguntar por ejemplo: “¿Cuántos platos más necesitamos?”

Te adjuntamos aquí abajo un vídeo que es muy útil para introducir a los pequeños al mundo de la matemática.

Programas Infantiles

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